IAS Coaching

Brief History

The Royal Commission on the Superior Civil Services in India under the chairmanship of Lord Lee, which submitted its Report in 1924, recommended the setting up of the Public Service Commission. This led to the establishment of the first Public Service Commission on October 1, 1926, under the Chairmanship of Sir Ross Barker. The limited advisory function accorded to the Public Service Commission and the continued stress on this aspect by the leaders of our freedom movement resulted in the setting up of a Federal Public Service Commission under the Government of India Act, 1935. The Federal Public Service Commission after Independence and was given a Constitutional Staus with the promulgation of the Constitution of India on January 26, 1950.


The Union Public Service Commission is a Constitutional Body established under Article 315 of the Constitution of India. The commission consists of a Chairman and ten Members.

The Mandate of Union Public Service Commission

The mandate of the Union Public Service Commission, under Article 320 and 321 of the Constitution of India, includes:

  • Recruitment by the conduct of competitive examinations;
  • Recruitment by Selection through Interviews;
  • Advising on the suitability of officers for appointment on promotion as well as transfer-on-deputation;
  • Advising the Government on all matters relating to methods of Recruitment to various services and posts; framing and amendment of Recruitment Rules;
  • Disciplinary cases relating to different civil services;
  • Miscellaneous matters relating to grant of extra-ordinary pensions, reimbursement of legal expenses, etc.
  • Advising the Government on any matter referred to the Commission by the President of India.
  • On the request of the Governor of State, to serve all or any of the needs of a State relating to recruitment, with the approval of the president.

Methods of Recruitment

Recruitment is made by one of the following four methods:

  • Direct Recruitment
  • Promotion
  • Deputation/absorption; and
  • Composite Method (Deputation plus Promotion)

Direct Recruitment

  • Direct Recruitment is conducted broadly under the following two methods:-
  • Recruitment by Competitive Examination; and
  • Recruitment by Selection

Recruitment Through Examination

The Commission conducts the following examination on a regular basis at various Centers located throughout the country for appointment to various Civil/Defence services/posts:-

  • Civil Services (Preliminary) Examination;
  • Civil Services (Main) Examination


The Commission consists of Chairman and ten Members. The current composition of the Commission is as under:-

Honble Chairman

Prof. D.P.Agrawal

Honble Members

  • Prof. K. S. Chalam
  • Prof. Purushottam Agarwal
  • Lt. Gen. (Retd.) Nirbhay Sharma
  • Shri Prashanta Kumar Mishra
  • Smt. Rajni Razdan
  • Smt. Shashi Uban Tripathi
  • Dr. KK Paul
  • Shri I M G Khan
  • Shri Vijay Singh


  • Shri Alok Rawat

Additional Secretaries

  • Smt. Sanjeevanee Kutty
  • Shri R.K.Gupta,

Profiles of Honble Chairman and Members of the Commission

  • Professor D. P. AGRAWAL (Chairman)

Professor D.P. Agrawal is a Member of, Union Public Service Commission, New Delhi. Before joining this prestigious position Professor D P Agrawal was founder Director of ABV Indian Institute of Information Technology and Management (IIITM), Gwalior. IIITM was set up by the Ministry of Human Resource Development in 1998 and declared by the Government of India, in 2001 as a Deemed University.

IIITM is a unique apex institution for producing leadership manpower in information technology and management and offers Ph.D., MBA, M Tech courses. The institute has already created a niche for itself in industries in India and abroad. The institute has been offering a large number of MDPs for executives from industry, government, and the corporate sector. The institute also offers consultancy to a number of industries. Under his leadership, IIITM has entered into MOUs with Institutions/Universities in the USA and Spain for joint collaboration in the areas of research, exchange programmes for faculty and students, and consultancy to companies in India and abroad. Many initiatives started by him at IIITM, Gwalior have been replicated in the country.

Professor Agrawal has been an eminent teacher, educational administrator, and institution builder. He was Professor and Dean at IIT- Delhi from where, in 1994, he took over as Joint Educational Adviser (T) in the Ministry of HRD, Government of India. He has planned and developed a number of initiatives at the national level in technical education, particularly in the areas of information technology and computer education. He has made a substantial contribution to the development of vocational education through advice and guidance.

Professor Agrawal was National Project Director of the World Bank assisted project for strengthening technician education in India. This project covered 19 States and 590 polytechnics.

Professor Agrawal has contributed significantly to the growth of quality technical education in the country through his close interaction with AICTE. He has been Chairman of the Central Regional Committee of AICTE. Currently, he is the Chairman of the PG Board of AICTE.

Professor Agrawal was born on 2nd October 1949. After graduating in Engineering in 1970 from AMU Aligarh, he obtained his Ph.D. from IIT, Delhi. He has been a visiting faculty at Imperial College, London, and Cranfield University in the UK. He has lectured in Germany and Czechoslovakia. He has led a number of delegations of the Government of India to the USA, Australia, Germany, New Zealand, and Canada.

Prof. Agrawal was christened as Engineer of the Year 2006 by the Institution of Engineers. Hon. Fellowship Award was conferred by the Indian Society for Technical Education on 14th December 2006.

  • Prof. K.S. CHALAM

Obtained his B.A. Hons., M.A., Ph.D., B.Ed. from Andhra University and DNEP (Warsaw) from Poland. His fields of specialization include Economics of Education, Political Economy, Public Economics, and Staff Development. Member, UPSC w.e.f. June 1, 2005.

Prof. Chalam held the position of:

  • Vice-Chancellor, Dravidian University, Kuppam (AP) (2005);
  • Member, Planning Board, Govt. of M.P., (2002-04);
  • Founder Director, UGC Academic Staff College, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam (1987-2005);
  • Director, Swamy Ramananda Tirtha Rural Institute, Pochampally, Hyderabad (1997-98);
  • Professor of Economics, Andhra University (1990-2005).

Prof. Chalam K.S. started his career as a Lecturer in Economics. He became a Reader and Professor of Economics at Andhra University. He was instrumental in developing the concept of Staff Development in higher education and became the Founder Director of Academic Staff College, A.U. in 1987, the first in the Country. He was Vice-President, AP Economic Association, 1996; Life Member, Indian Political Economy Association; Secretary, Indian Section Amnesty International, 1984-85; President, Mahendra Degree College, Pathapatnam. He has organized 6 seminars as Director, Consultant for academic and social activist groups. He has attended the UN Conference on Racism in Tehran, Kathmandu, Cairo, Durban, South Africa. He has participated and chaired sessions of SAAPE, Colombo, Sri Lanka on Poverty in the SAARC region and contributed to the publication of Poverty in SAARC Countries. He has participated in the international conference on Privatization of Power and Water in Bangkok in 2002. Prof. Chalams paper on the Origin of Science and Technology in India presented at the 31st South Asia Conference in Wisconsin, USA was applauded by scholars as a new field of research.

An internationally renowned expert on Staff Development, Prof. Chalam has published 20 books in English, 6 in Telugu, 88 research papers in journals including 6 in EPW and has written more than 200 edit page articles in Vaartha, Eenadu, Bhoomi & Jyothi in Telugu. His books on Political Economy and Educational Planning are offered as Textbooks in several universities. He is the Founder Editor of the South India Journal of Social Sciences. As a Staff developer, he has conducted around 300 Refresher Courses in all major disciplines of Knowledge for Lecturers and Readers at Andhra University. He is considered a Father figure in Staff Development in higher education in India.

In the field of Consultancy, Prof. Chalam has developed International contacts with Academics and NGOs to build social and academic institutions. Served as a Member, World Bank Monitoring Mission, DPEP, Govt. of India & ODA for Tamil Nadu, M.P., West Bengal & Bihar; Member, School Reforms Committee, Govt. of A.P; Member, 9th Plan Working Group on Higher Education, Govt. of India; Member, Standing Committee, UGC-ASC, CAPART-1997-98; Expert Member, Vision 2020, HRD, Govt. of A P. NAAC, etc.; Member Tenth Plan Consultative Group on Higher Education, Planning Commission, Govt. of India.

Besides, Research guidance for the award of 10 Ph. Ds and 4 M.Phils, Prof. Chalams research includes 10 research projects of UGC; School of Economics including Govt. of A.P.; DPEP project on Primary Education, 2000 and others. He was one of the earliest scholars to specialize in Economics of Education in 1972. This became an important branch of study in Economics as Human Development in 1990 at Andhra University. He was an adjunct professor at the Department of Education and Economics at Andhra


Senior Cambridge, Delhi Public School, Mathura Road, New Delhi; B.A.(English Hons); M.A. (English), Patna University. She is a Gold-Medalist of Patna University having topped at the Graduate and Postgraduate levels. Joined Indian Foreign Service in 1970. During her 37 years of a diplomatic career, she handled varied and important assignments in a number of countries. Her first posting abroad was as Second-Secretary and later First-Secretary (Political) in the Embassy of India, Kathmandu, Nepal from 1974-77. She served as First-Secretary (Information) in the Embassy of India, Moscow, USSR from 1977-80 where, inter-alia, she edited a popular magazine called INDIA in Russian. From Moscow, she was posted as First-Secretary (Head of Chancery) and in charge of Indian Technical and Economic Cooperation (ITEC) Programme in the Embassy of India, Kabul, Afghanistan where during the critical years of 1980-83 in the background of internal strife, she assisted in the reconstruction efforts through Indian experts deputed to that country.>

She took over as Deputy Director-General of Indian Council for Cultural Relations (ICCR) New Delhi in 1983 an autonomous body funded by the Ministry of External Affairs, responsible for projecting Indias rich cultural heritage abroad. In the wake of the tragic Air India Kanishka crash, a special Post of Counselor (Information, Publicity, and Spokesperson) was created in the High Commission of India, Ottawa, Canada to which, she was deputed from 1985-88. After a three-year eventful tenure in Canada, she moved back to the neighborhood as Deputy Consul General in the Consulate General of India, Karachi, Pakistan from 1988-92, where she put in place systems that helped in easing Visa restrictions.

From 1992-94, she served as Minister and then Deputy Chief of Mission (Political & Economic Affairs) in the Embassy of India, Bonn, Germany.

For the next ten years, she served as Head of Mission first as Ambassador of India, Warsaw, Poland in 1994-97, where she was pivotal in reviving and rejuvenating Indias relations with Poland at a time when Central European countries were becoming increasingly Euro-centric and subsequently as High Commissioner of India in Harare, Zimbabwe (1997-98). She helped prominent Indian PSUs to get a foothold in niche markets in that once prosperous African country. Her tenure as Consul General of India in New York, USA (1988-02) was marked by the entry of major Indian corporate players on the New York Stock Exchange, as also the change in the perception of India as a rising economic force. During the tragic terrorist attack of 9/11, she set up a twenty-four-hour Crisis Centre at the Consulate General of India to render disaster relief whose work was appreciated by the local as well as Indian Media and the Honble Parliament. She was Ambassador of India in Ottawa, Canada from 2002-04 before taking over as Secretary (West), Ministry of External Affairs.

She has been a sought-after speaker and has delivered speeches on foreign affairs and on different aspects of India at various foreign universities. She joined as a Member of, Union Public Service Commission in May 2007.


(b. 1955 at Gwalior, India), Graduation (1974 - Maharani Laxmi Bai College, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh), MA (Political Science, 1977 - Jiwaji University, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh), MA (Hindi Literature, 1979 - Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi), Ph.D. (Hindi Literature, 1985, The Social Meaning of Kabirs Bhakti; Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi).

Formerly Chairperson, Center of Indian Languages, School of Language, Literature and Culture Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi; Chief Advisor, Hindi Textbooks (classes VI-XII), NCERT, New Delhi (2005-07), Prof. Agrawal taught at Ramjas College, University of Delhi (1982-90), edited and published Jigyasa, an interdisciplinary academic journal (1983-84), served as Associate Professor, Center of Indian Languages, JNU (1990-2003). Professor of Hindi Literature, Center of Indian Languages, School of Languages, Literature and Culture Studies (SLLCS), JNU (2003-07).

He served as a British Academy Visiting Professor at Faculty of Oriental Studies, Cambridge University, and a Fellow of Wolfson College, Cambridge University, the United Kingdom in 2002. Conducted two seminars on Identity discourses in the current Indian politics at the Center of South Asian Studies, Cambridge University. Also served as Visiting Professor at El Colegio de Mexico (National College of Mexico, Mexico City) during May-July 2002. Conducted four seminars on the themes of culture and history of Indian people. In Nov.-Dec.2004, during an academic tour of the United States of America, Prof. Agrawal lectured at Columbia University, New York; Emory University, Atlanta; Rice University, Houston. The Halle Institute of the Emory University organized a luncheon meeting in his honor, where he spoke on the post-election political scene in India.

Prof. Agrawal won Devi Shankar Awasthy Samman for Teesra Rukh, 1996, and Mukutdhar Pandey Samman for Sanskriti: Varchswa aur Pratiroadh, 1997. Some of the books written by Prof. Agrawal are Kabir: Sakhi our Sabad (A collection of Kabirs poetry with an analytical introduction), Shivdan Singh Chauhan (A monograph in Makers of Indian Literature series published by Sahitya Akademi, Delhi), Majbooti Ka Naam Mahatma Gandhi (published version of annual Gandhi Lecture, organized by Gandhi Peace Foundation, Delhi), Nij Brahma Vichhar: Dharma Samaj our Dharmetar Adhyatma (Essays on religion, spirituality, and philosophy), Vichaar ka Ananta (a collection of theoretical and cultural essays), Teesra Rukh (A collection of literary and cultural essays), Sanskriti: Varchswa our Pratiroadh (a collection of cultural and political essays) Hindi Nai chaal mein Dhali( edited proceedings of the international symposium organized in Patna, India on the evolution of modern Hindi)

Prof. Agrawal contributes regularly to academic journals and popular magazines on wide-ranging issues of culture, literature, and current affairs. Numerous articles both in Hindi and English have been published in academic journals, popular magazines, and newspapers over the last twenty-five years. He has reviewed several books in English and Hindi for Seminar, Studies in History, The Book Review, Biblio, Alochana, Hans, Kathadesh, Vasudha, etc.

Prof. Agrawal served as a Member of several Board of Studies; the Academic, Research, and Governing Council of important Universities of the Country. In many international conferences and academic events, he delivered various keynote addresses, presented papers, delivered lectures, spoke on important themes besides organizing an international conference on the Evolution of Hindi.

An active social activist and consultant, Prof. Agrawal served as Chief Advisor (2003-06) of the Peaceful coexistence in South Asia project of the Aman Trust, Delhi. As a consultant to Oxfam, India (1998-2002), he had organized inter-faces of scholars, creative artists, and social activists as part of the Violence Amelioration and Mitigation Project (VMAP). Of particular value have been the interfaces between Kabir-panties and the scholars of Kabir, and conferences on the question of social identities and dialogue on Spirituality without Religion. His writings have been included in a course Public intellectuals of India offered by the College of Mexico, Mexico City.

Member, Union Public Service Commission, New Delhi since July 2, 2007.

  • Dr. K.K. PAUL

An M.Sc (Hons) and Ph.D. in Chemistry from Punjab University, Dr. Krishan Kant Paul joined IPS in 1970 and was allocated to the UT (AGMUT) cadre. He was amongst the first Ph. Ds in Police Service. In the context of his research work in Chemistry, he has over 20 papers published in international scientific journals of repute. He has maintained his touch with the academics and continued to write on various matters of topical interest. One of his Columns Brass Tacks appeared regularly in The Tribune and was widely read.

Dr. Krishan Kant Paul, while in the UT Cadre remained posted in A&N Islands and later as the Chief of Police in Arunachal Pradesh. He also had tenures in the Central Intelligence Agencies. While posted in Delhi, he had the wide-ranging experience of urban policing and was involved in handling some mega-events like the Asian Games in 1982, followed by NAM and CHOGM in 1983.

Dr. Paul is credited with the introduction of several new technologies in policing in Delhi and making Delhi Police into one of the most modern police forces in the country. He has had one of the longest ever tenures in Delhi as Commissioner of Police and introduced several innovative measures for the benefit of the common man. Citizens First was made into a guiding principle to focus on the service aspect of policing. Community policing initiatives were placed on a firm footing giving the force an orientation of a service organization rather than merely being a law and order force. In this context, several proactive policing measures were taken up.

Considering the significance of modernization and transparency, the Arms Licensing Branch of Delhi Police was modernized and was able to get an ISO certification. The recruitment process in Delhi Police has also been standardized and won an ISO certification. The Procurement Wing of Delhi Police and some sections of Traffic Police have also been able to get an ISO certification. All the Police Stations were computerized and networked in record time. A special scheme Parivartan, to fight crimes against women was initiated which won international acclaim. The prestigious Weber Savvy award for Community Policing and Law Enforcement was also won by Delhi Police during his tenure. Amongst the other modernization efforts were the computerization of fingerprints and intensive use of CCTV cameras for security in public places and for the management of traffic. Networking of Traffic signals through computers was also achieved.

He is the recipient of several commendations and appreciations from the Government, besides Kathin Seva Padaks and with Bar, Presidents Police Medal for Distinguished Services, and Police Medal for Meritorious Services besides the Internal Security Medal.

He has joined as a Member of the Union Public Service Commission on July 26, 2007.

  • Lt. Gen. (Retd.) Nirbhay Sharma

Lt. Gen. Nirbhay Sharma (retd), a highly decorated army officer and former Master General of Ordnance. During his distinguished career spanning 40 years, he has the distinction of serving eight tenures in Jammu and Kashmir and the North-East in various command assignments.

He also held important assignments in military operations, planning, crisis management, material management, and UN Peace Keeping Missions. An M.Phil in Defence Studies and M.Sc. in Military Sciences, Lt. Gen. (retd.) Nirbhay Sharma is a guest speaker at various prestigious institutions. In recognition of his distinguished career, he was decorated with several titles, including PVSM, UYSM, AVSM, and VSM.

  • Shri I M G Khan

Shri I.M.G Khan former Secretary (Posts), Department of Posts, is an officer of the Indian Postal Service belonging to the 1970 batch, Shri I.M.G Khan held several important positions in his career, which includes, Member (Operations & Marketing) and Member (Development) in the Department of Posts, Additional Secretary in the Department of Personnel and Training and Additional Secretary and Controller of Examinations in the UPSC.

He also served as Member Secretary, Civil Services Examination Reforms Committee headed by Professor Y.K. Alagh in UPSC. Shri Khan was also a Member of the UPSC delegation that visited Australia and Singapore to study their Public Service Commissions. UPSC Member Profiles

  • Shri Prashanta Kumar Mishra

Prashanta Kumar Mishra, former Uttar Pradesh Chief Secretary, is a 1972 batch Indian Administrative Services (IAS) Officer of UP Cadre. In his career spanning over 36 years has held several important assignments both in the state of UP and in the centre

His assignments at the Centre included the Director-General of Nehra Yuva Kendra Sangathan, Additional Secretary in the Ministry of Defence, Special Secretary and Financial Adviser in the Ministry of Civil Aviation, and Parliamentary Affairs Secretary.

  • Shri Vijay Singh

Former Defence Secretary Vijay Singh is an Indian Administrative Service Officer of the Madhya Pradesh Cadre (1970), Singh held several important assignments both in Madhya Pradesh and at the Centre during his 37-year career.

His assignments at the Centre included a Director in the Department of Cultural Affairs, a Joint Secretary in the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, an Additional Secretary in the Ministry of Commerce, a Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, and a Ministry of Finance.

He became Chief Secretary of Madhya Pradesh in October 2004 and served there till January 2006.

Thereafter, he served as Secretary to Government of India in the Department of AYUSH and later in the Department of Road Transport and Highways, till becoming Defence Secretary in August 2007. (ANI)

  • Rajni Razdan

Former Secretary of the Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances.

Indian Administrative Service Officer of Haryana Cadre of 1973 Batch, Rajni Razdan has held several important assignments both in the state of Haryana and at the Centre.

Her assignments at the Centre included Joint Secretary in the Ministry of Food and Additional Secretary in the Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions.

Author of a number of publications, she became Secretary to the Government of India in the Department of Pension & Administrative Reforms & Public Grievances in February 2007.


Officiating appointments of Non-cadre State Service officers to the IAS/IPS/IFS cadre posts are made under rule 9 of the IAS/IPS (Cadre) Rules 1954 and IFS (Cadre) Rules 1966. While approving these appointments, it is ensured that the following conditions are satisfied.

  • No cadre officer is available for the post:
  • The officiating appointments are made in the order in which the names of the officers appear in the Select List prepared in accordance with the IAS/IPS/IFS (Appointments by Promotion) Regulations.
  • Where a Select List is not in force or it is proposed to appoint a Non-Select List officer the State Govt. shall forthwith make a proposal to the Central Government explaining the reasons and appointment shall be made with the prior approval of the Central Government.

In terms of Rule 9(3) of the IAS/IPS (Cadre) Rules, 1954 and IFS(Cadre) Rules, 1966 where a cadre post is likely to be filled by a person who is not a cadre officer for a period exceeding six months, the Central Government shall report the full facts to the UPSC with the reasons for holding that no suitable officer is available for filling the post and may in the light of the advice given by the UPSC, give suitable direction to the State Government concerned.

Nature & Eligibility of the Examination

It is the Indian civil service that is the backbone of the Indian government machinery. This exam is conducted by the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) in various centers throughout India. Civil Services is very competitive and challenging offering various jobs in various departments. The benefit of the jobs here is that they are secure, and carry lots of power and prestige with them.

Nature of the Examination:

Every state has centre to conduct the Indian Civil Services Exam. However, if you are an aspiring candidate for the exam, you have to accept the fact that it is suited for those who follow a good strategy in the Civil Services Examination.

The Indian Civil Services Exam is basically a three-stage competitive selection process that consists of a Preliminary exam: General studies (200 marks) and aptitude test (200-marks) which will be qualifying in nature. It is conducted in the month of JUNE.

The total seats are ranging 11,000 to 15,000.

Main exam: it comprises of 2000-marks.

  • Paper I which is an Indian language the candidate selects and carries 300 marks.
  • Paper-II is English, carries 300 marks. These two are only qualifying in nature.
  • GENERAL STUDIES (2-paper with 300 marks each= 600 marks)
  • TWO OPTIONAL with 2- paper each, constitute 300-2= 600 marks + 600 marks
  • ESSAY paper-200 marks

The total seats are ranging 2100 to 2800.

Interview: to be conducted in the month of April-May; comprises of 300-marks. The total comes with 2300-marks.

The total seats are ranging 700 to 900.

The exam is conducted by the UPSC only once a year and is famous for being very challenging.

Based on these ranks, and the preferences mentioned in the main application form, candidates are allotted various services. If a candidate fails in the mains or interview, he/she has to once again answer the preliminary and mains exam.

Eligibility requirements

To answer the Indian Civil Services Exam, you have to be a citizen of India or a subject of Nepal or Bhutan. Even people of Indian origin who have migrated to Sri Lanka, Kenya, Pakistan, Burma, Uganda, Zambia, Malawi, Vietnam, Zaire, and Ethiopia but have the intention of permanently settling in India can answer the exam. Tibetan refugees who had come to India before 1st January 1962 and plan to permanently settle in India can also answer the exam.

The minimum educational qualification for the examination is a degree in any deemed university or from a university incorporated by an Act of State or Central Legislature of India.

The minimum age of the applicant should be 21 years on 1st August of the year of appearing for the examination.

The maximum age limit is 30 for general category applicants, 33 for OBCs, and 35 for SCs and STs. In the case of ex-servicemen, they are given an additional 5 years exemption from the individual age limits.

The age accepted by the Commission is based on the date of birth entered in the Matriculation or Secondary School Leaving Certificate or any Indian University recognized certificate.

Number of attempts

The maximum number of attempts an applicant may make for the exam is four for open category applicants and seven for OBCs. However, in the case of SC/STs, there is no limit. Just appearing in the Preliminary examination or a single paper is considered an attempt.


DATE OF COMMENCEMENT OF EXAM 19.05.2013 (SUNDAY) 05.11.2013 


Into the IAS, IPS, and the Central Services, Group A and Group B are through the Combined Competitive Examination for the Civil Services.

Functional Levels

Except for the post of Union Cabinet Secretary, the Government of India hierarchy is common to all services. The scales are:

Junior Scale Officers

Begin their careers with a two-year probationary period. This is spent partly in training, after which they may be posted at the state secretariat; as field officers; or a District Magistrates office. Junior scale officers in the position of Sub-Magistrate are given mainly regulatory duties, like law and order, enforcement of rules, and general administration, including the supervision of development work.

Senior Scale Officers

Starts at the Under Secretary level and includes District Magistrates, Directors of public enterprises, and Directors of government departments. Within this scale are:

  • Junior Administrative Grade-Deputy Secretary
  • Selection Grade-Director

Both these positions hold similar responsibilities and are at par with each other.

Additional Secretary

The work undertaken by an Additional Secretary is similar to that of a Secretary though the level of responsibility is lower.


Secretaries head government departments and are concerned with planning in their particular areas. Some appointments such as finance and planning are considered more prestigious than others and are therefore at par with the post of Additional Chief Secretary. Another title for this level is Principal Secretary.

Chief Secretary

The top-ranking civil servant in any state is responsible for everything that happens in the state as far as duties assigned to state governments are concerned.

Cabinet Secretary

The highest post at the centre (Govt. of India).


  • Go through the Syllabus in detail.
  • Go through the previous year questions.
  • Sort out the question papers according to the syllabus and chapter-wise.
  • Get an idea of how the questions are being asked.
  • Please remember, the question pattern may vary, but the answer to the question is the same.
  • The Questions are supposed to ask the basic concept of the particular subject.
  • Questions are generally categorized as very easy to answer, easy to answer, moderately difficult, and very difficult.
  • Focus on the areas where maximum questions have been asked.
  • Do practice papers and test series question papers as much as possible before the exams, and try doing it according to strict exams time frame.
  • Get professional help to do all the above.

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